Associate Professor of Molecular Microbiology

Stallings Lab website

Research Interests:

Molecular pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

PubMed Publications: for Stallings + CL
Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences profile

Office Address:

Department of Molecular Microbiology
Washington University School of Medicine
10260 McDonnell Pediatric Research Building, Room 8210
Campus Box 8230
660 S. Euclid Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63110

Phone, office: 314-286-0276
Fax: 314-362-3203
Email: stallings [at]


1999-2005 Ph.D. with Distinction, Cellular, Molecular and Biophysical Studies, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY
1995-1999 Bachelor of Science with Honors, Biology, Mary Washington College, Fredericksburg, VA
1995-1999 Teaching License in Secondary Education, Mary Washington College, Fredericksburg, VA

Current Position:

2010-Present Assistant Professor of Molecular Microbiology, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO

Previous Research Positions:

2006-2010 Postdoctoral Research, Sloan-Kettering Institute, NY, NY. Investigating the regulation of transcription during Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis
2000-2005 Doctoral Thesis, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY. Characterization of the Varicella Zoster Virus ORF29p Subcellular Targeting Mechanisms During Lytic and Latent Infection
1998-1999 Undergraduate Thesis, Mary Washington College, Fredericksburg, VA. Expression of the p53 Protein and its Correlation with the p21 Gene in DNA Damaged ME180 Cells
1998 Research Intern, Medical Sciences Research Institute, Herndon, VA. Investigated problems associated with immunologic response and infection due to biomaterial implants

Teaching Responsibilities:

2015 Lecturer, Bio5011, Responsible Conduct in Research Course, 6 lectures/yr
2014-Present Lecturer, Microbes and Pathogenesis 1st year Medical School Course, 1 lecture/yr
2013-Present Lecturer, Bio5392, Graduate Microbiology Course, 3 lectures/yr
2010-Present Lecturer, Bio5217, Special Topics in Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, 1 lecture/yr
2012-2013 Lecturer, Bio5392, Graduate Microbiology Course, 1 lecture/yr

Professional Affiliations:

2010-Present American Society for Microbiology Member, Officer of Mycobacteriology Division, 2015-2017
2011-Present Institute of Clinical and Translational Science Member

Professional and University Service-
Ad Hoc Reviewer for the Following Journals:

Nucleic Acids Research, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, European Journal of Immunology, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Trends in Molecular Medicine, Molecular Systems Biology, Journal of Bacteriology, Molecular Microbiology, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, PNAS, Future Medicine, Environmental Microbiology, mBio, Journal of Biological Chemistry, PLOS Pathogens

Professional and University Service-
Other Reviewer Responsibilities:

2015 Reviewer for NIH R21 and R01,Basic Research in HIV-Related Heart, Lung and Blood Diseases, RFA-HL-14-029 and RFA-HL-14-024
2015 Reviewer for The German Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development research proposals
2014 Reviewer for NIH R21 and R01, US-South Africa Program for Collaborative Biomedical Research, RFA-AI-14-009 and RFA-AI-14-010
2014 Reviewer for NIH U01 and U19 ICIDR grants, RFA-AI-14-001 and RFA-AI-14-002
2014 Reviewer for NIH R01/R21 special emphasis panel on infectious disease
2014 Reviewer for ICTS Pilot Awards
2014-Present Reviewer for Graduate Women in Science Fellowships
2012-2013 Reviewer for URSA proposals
2012-2013 Reviewer for Spector Award
2011-2013 Reviewer for MRCE Developmental Projects
2011-2013 Reviewer for SURF proposals
2013-2014 Poster Judge for Global Health and Infectious Disease Conference
2011-2015 Poster Judge for Postdoctoral Research Symposium

Other Professional and University Service:

2015 Junior Investigator Panel Participant for DBBS review
2015 Junior Investigator Panel Participant for LCME Site Visit
2015 Junior Investigator Panel Participant at NIH CMB Training Grant site visit
2014 Presenter at the Children’s Discovery Institute Annual Investors Symposium
2015-2017 Officer of the Mycobacteriology Division U of the American Society for Microbiology
2014 Presenter at the NIH NIGMS Mass Spectrometry Resource Renewal Site Visit
2014-Present Recruiting Director for MMMP graduate program
2014-Present Member of the MMMP steering committee
2014 Junior Investigator Panel participant for NIH MSTP Program Review site visit
2014-2015 Invited Editor for mBIO Journal
2014 Session Chair for Keystone Symposia on “Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Tuberculosis”
2013-2015 Member of the Liaison Committee on Medical Education Self-Study Task Force for Washington University School of Medicine
2013-Present MMMP Retreat Faculty Coordinator
2011-Present MMMP Graduate Admissions Committee
2012-Present Molecular Microbiology Faculty Search Committee
2013 Biophysics QE Committee
2012 MGG QE Committee
2011-Present MMMP QE Committee
2011-2012 Young Scientist Program Sponsor

Honors and Awards:

2015 Elected Division Officer of the Mycobacteriology Division U of the American Society for Microbiology
2013 Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation Young Investigator Award Recipient
2012 Washington University Nominee for the Pew Biomedical Scholars
2012 Washington University Research Strategic Alliance grant recipient
2011-2013 American Lung Association Biomedical Research Grant recipient
2007-2010 NIH Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award, Individual Postdoctoral Fellowship
2010 MSKCC Postdoctoral Researcher Award
2010 New York Academy of Sciences Blavatnik Award nominee
2009 Sloan-Kettering Institute and Cornell University Immunology Department Achievement Award
2009 Keystone Symposia Travel Scholarship for Tuberculosis: Biology, Pathology and Therapy meeting
2008 1st Place Poster Prize, MSKCC Postdoctoral Research Symposium
2003 International Herpesvirus Workshop Travel Honorarium
1998-1999 National Science Foundation Scholarship
1995-1999 Mary Washington College Alumni Scholarship
1999 Magna Cum Laude Graduate
1998 Member of Phi Beta Kappa, Golden Key National Honor Society
1998-1999 Member and Officer of Chi Beta Phi, National Science and Math Honor Society
1998-1999 Member and Officer of Alpha Phi Sigma, National Honor Society
1998-1999 Member of Kappa Delta Pi, International Education Honor Society

Peer Reviewed Publications:

Rammohan, J., Ruiz-Manzano, A., Garner, A.L., Stallings, C.L., and Galburt, E.A.. 2015. CarD stabilizes mycobacterial open complexes via a two-tiered kinetic mechanism. Nucleic Acids Res.In Press. PMID: 25697505.
Selected as a Breakthrough Article, a designation given to the best papers published in Nucleic Acids Research each year

MacDuff, D.A., Reese, T.A., Kimmey, J.M., Weiss, L.A., Song, C., Zhang, X., Kambal, A., Duan, E., Carrero, J.A., Boisson, B., Laplantine, E., Israel, A., Picard, C., Colonna, M., Edelson, B.T., Sibley, L.D., Stallings, C.L., Casanova, J.L., Iwai, K., and Virgin, H.W.. 2015. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection. ElifeIn Press. PMCID: PMC4298697.

Imlay, L.S., Armstrong, C.M., Masters, M.C., Lic, T., Price, K.E., Edwards, R.L., Mann, K.M., Li, L.X., Stallings, C.L., Berry, N.G., O’Neill, P.M., and Odom, A.R.. 2015. Plasmodium IspD (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidyltransferase), an essential and druggable antimalarial target. ACS Infectious Diseases. In Press.

Landick, R., Krek, A., Glickman, M.S., Socci, N.D., and Stallings, C.L.. 2014. Genome-Wide Mapping of the Distribution of CarD, RNAP σA, and RNAP β on the Mycobacterium smegmatis Chromosome using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing. Genomics Data. 2:110-113. PMCID: PMC4115788.

Garner, A.L., Weiss, L.A., Ruiz Manzano, A., Galburt, E.A., and Stallings, C.L.. 2014. CarD integrates three functional modules to promote efficient transcription, antibiotic tolerance, and pathogenesis in mycobacteria. Molecular Microbiology. 93(4):682-97. PMCID: PMC4127138.

Gopal, R., Monin, L., Slight, S., Uche, U., Blanchard, E., Fallert Junecko, B.A., Stallings, C.L., Reinhart, T.A., Kolls, J., Nagarajan, U., Rangel-Moreno, J., and Khader, S.A.. 2014. IL-17 is required for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis “hypervirulent” HN878 infection. PLOS Pathogens. 10(5):e1004099. PMCID: PMC4022785.

Weiss, L.A. and Stallings, C.L. 2013. Essential Roles for Mycobacterium tuberculosis RelMtb beyond the production of (p)ppGpp. JBac. 195(24):5629-5638. PMCID: PMC3889611.

Srivastava, D. B., Leon, K, Osmundson, J, Garner, A., Weiss, L. A., Westblade, L., Glickman, M. S., Landick, R., Darst, S. A., and *Stallings, C. L., and *Campbell, E.A.. 2013. Structure and function of CarD, an essential Mycobacterial transcription factor. PNAS. 110(31):12619-24. PMCID: PMC3732983. (*Co-corresponding authors).

Tussiwand, R., Lee, W., Murphy, Y.L., Mashayekhi, M., Albring, J.C., Satpathy, A.T., Wumesh KC, Rotondo, J.A., Edelson, B.T., Kretzer, N.M., Wu, X., Behnke, M., Weiss, L.A., Lam, S.S.K., Aurthur, C.T., Stallings, C.L., Sibley, L.D., Schreiber, R.D., and Murphy, K.M.. 2012. Compensatory dendritic cell development mediated by BATF-IRF interactions. Nature. 490(7421):502-7. PMCID: PMC3482832.

Weiss, L.A., Harrison, P.G., Nickels, B.E., Glickman, M.S., Campbell, E.A., Darst, S.A., and Stallings, C.L.  2012. The interaction of CarD with RNAP mediates Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability, rifampicin resistance, and persistence. JBac. 194(20):5621-31. PMCID: PMC3458692.   Selected for the Journal Highlights Section of Microbe

Stallings, C.L., Chu, L., Li, L.X., and Glickman, M.S.. 2011. Catalytic and non-catalytic roles for the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase Arr in the mycobacterial DNA damage response. PLoS One. 6(7):e21807. PMCID: PMC3138739.

Barkan, D., Stallings, C.L., and Glickman, M.S. 2011. An improved counterselectable marker system for mycobacterial recombination using galK and 2-Deoxy-Galactose. Gene. 470(1-2):31-6. PMCID: PMC3008429.

Stallings, C.L., Stephanou, N.C., Chu, L., Hochschild, A., Nickels, B.E., and Glickman, M.S.. 2009. CarD is an essential regulator of rRNA transcription required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence. Cell. 138(1):146-59. PMCID: PMC2756155. Comments in: Connolly, L.E. and Cox, J.S.. 2009. Cell Host Microbe. 6(1):1-2. Molloy, S.. 2009. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 7:618.

Stallings, C.L. and Silverstein, S.J.. 2006. Posttranslational modification and cell-type specific degradation of varicella-zoster virus ORF29p. J Virol. 80:10836-46. PMCID: PMC1641786.

Stallings, C.L.,  Duigou, G.J., Gershon, A.A., Gershon, M.D., and Silverstein, S.J.. 2006. The cellular localization pattern of varicella-zoster virus ORF29p is influenced by proteasome- mediated degradation. J Virol. 80:1497-1512. PMCID: PMC1346923.

Stallings, C.L., and Silverstein, S.J.. 2005. Dissection of a novel nuclear localization signal in open reading frame 29 of varicella-zoster virus. J Virol. 79:13070-81. PMCID: PMC1235848.

Abstracts and Invited Presentations:

(*Denotes Oral Presentation)

*Stallings, C. Dissecting Mycobacterial Persistence with Chemical Scalpels. 9th International Conference on the Pathogenesis of Mycobacterial Infections. Stockholm, Sweden. June 26-29, 2014.

*Stallings, C. Essential Roles for Mycobacterium tuberculosis RelMtb Beyond the Production of (p)ppGpp. American Society of Microbiology General Meeting, Boston, MA. May 18-21, 2014

*Stallings, C. Inhibition of RelMtb (p)ppGpp hydrolase activity as a new target for TB therapy. Keystone Symposia on Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Tuberculosis. Keystone, CO. March 30-April 4, 2014. Also Served as a Session Chair

*Stallings, C. New Mechanisms of Regulating Transcription during Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Seminar Series. Washington University in St Louis. November 19, 2013.

*Stallings, C. New Mechanisms of Regulating Transcription during Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Department Seminar Series at Indiana University in Bloomington. November 15, 2013.

*Stallings, C. Molecular Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular and Cellular Seminar Series for the Department of Microbiology at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. October 25, 2013.

*Stallings, C. Invited workshop participant at the Global Health Workshop at UNICAMP in Brazil. September 12-14, 2013.

*Stallings, C. Hijacking clinically available drugs for the treatment of TB. Global Alliance for TB Drug Development (TB Alliance). September 6, 2013.

*Stallings, C. Dissecting mycobacterial persistence in biofilms with chemical scalpels. Nobel Conference on Biofilm Formation, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. August 28-30, 2013.

*Stallings, C. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD protein and pathogenesis. American Society of Microbiology General Meeting, Denver, CO. May 18-21, 2013.

*Stallings, C. Molecular Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunology Seminar Series. Washington University in St Louis. November 19, 2012.

*Stallings, C. Midwest Microbial Pathogenesis Conference. Ann Arbor, Mi, October 21-23, 2011.

*Stallings, C. Pediatric Infectious Disease Seminar. Washington University in St. Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo, November 7, 2011.

Stallings, C., Harrison, P., Weiss. L., Nickels, B., and Darst, S. Insights into the interaction between CarD and RNAP β. FASEB Mechanisms and Regulation of Prokaryotic Transcription, Saxton River, Vt, June 2011.

*Stallings, C. Lung Biology Conference. Washington University in St. Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo, March 7, 2011.

*Stallings, C. Regulation of transcription during Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, January 20, 2011.

*Stallings, C. Regulating rRNA transcription during Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Keystone Symposia, Mycobacteria: Physiology, Metabolism and Pathogenesis- Back to the Basics. Vancouver, BC, January 15-19, 2011.

*Stallings, C and Glickman, M. CarD controls ribosomal RNA transcription in response to DNA damage, starvation, and oxidative stress in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FASEB Mechanisms and Regulation of Prokaryotic Transcription, Saxton River, Vt, June 21-26, 2009.

Stallings, C and Glickman, M. Resistance to Starvation and Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria Requires the Novel Stringent Response Factor Ddi1. Keystone Symposia, Tuberculosis: Biology, Pathology and Therapy. Keystone, CO, January 25-30, 2009.

*Stallings, C and Glickman, M. Investigating the Mycobacterial Transcriptional Response to Double Strand DNA Breaks. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria and Phages Meeting, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, August 20-24, 2008.

*Stallings, C and Silverstein, S. VZV ORF29p- Are you in or are you out. International Herpesvirus Workshop, Turku, Finland, July 30-August 4, 2005.

*Stallings, C and Silverstein, S. Characterization of the cellular localization of varicella-zoster virus ORF29p. International Herpesvirus Workshop, Reno, NV, July 25-30, 2004.

*Stallings, C and Silverstein, S. Varicella-zoster virus ORF29p subcellular localization during lytic and latent infection. Keystone Symposia, The Pathogen-Host Standoff: Persistent and Latent Infection, Taos, NM, March 25-30, 2004.

*Stallings, C and Silverstein, S. Characterization of the subcellular localization of varicella-zoster virus ORF29p. International Herpesvirus Workshop. Madison, WI, July 26-31, 2003.

Invited Reviews:

Stallings, C. L.  and Glickman, M. S. 2010. Is Mycobacterium tuberculosis stressed out? A critical assessment of the genetic evidence. Microbes and Infection. 12(14-15):1091-101.

*Stallings, C. L.  and Glickman, M. S. 2011. CarD: A new RNA polymerase modulator in mycobacteria. Transcription. 2(1):15-18. (*Corresponding Author)

Book Chapters:

Walters, M.S., Kyratsous, C.A., Stallings, C.L, Lungu, O. and Silverstein, S.J. 2010. “What Doesn’t Belong and Why; a Saga of Latency Associated Proteins Elaborated by Varicella Zoster Virus” In: From the Hallowed Halls of Herpesvirology: Review Series Commemorating the 80th Birthday of Bernard Roizman, Sc.D., J.A. Blaho and J.D. Baines editors, Imperial College Press, City.