Professor of Molecular Microbiology

Khader Lab website

Research Interests:

Host pathogen interactions of pulmonary intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Francisella tularensis

PubMed Publications: for Khader+SA and Shabaana+AK
Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences profile

Office Address:

Department of Molecular Microbiology
Washington University School of Medicine
Room 8220, McDonnell Pediatric Research Building
660 S. Euclid Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63110

Phone: 314-286-1590
Fax: 314-362-1232
Email: khader [at]


1992 Bachelor’s Degree in Zoology, Bharathidasan University, India. Degree awarded April 8, 1995
1994 Master’s Degree in Biomedical Genetics, University of Madras, India. Degree awarded February 2, 1998.
1997-2002 Ph.D. in Biotechnology, (Ph.D. Mentor: Dr. K. Dharmalingam) School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamil Nadu, India. Thesis submitted in November 2002. Degree awarded October 25, 2004.
2002-2006 Post doctoral Training (Mentor: Dr. Andrea Cooper), Trudeau Institute Inc, Saranac Lake, NY 12983

Current Position:

Associate Professor of Molecular Microbiology

Previous Academic Positions/Employment:

2008-2013 Assistant Professor, Pediatrics and Immunology, University of  Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA
2008-2013 Affiliate, Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh
2008-2013 Faculty, Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
2009-2013 Biosafety Director, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, BSL-3 facility 
2007 -2008 Visiting Assistant Professor, Pediatrics and Immunology, University of  Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA
2006-2007 Research Scientist, Trudeau Institute Inc. Saranac Lake, NY
2002-2006 Post-Doctoral Fellow, Trudeau Institute Inc. Saranac Lake, NY
1999-2002 Senior Research Fellow, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, India
1998 Exchange Fellow, Indo-Swiss Collaboration in Biotechnology, Department of Pathology, Geneva Medical School, Switzerland
1997-1998 Junior Research Fellow, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, India

Honors and Awards:

1994 Mother Philomene Gold Medal for overall proficiency in B.Sc. Zoology
1994-1996 National Merit Scholarship for Post Graduate Studies in M.Sc. Biomedical Genetics, University of Madras, India                            
1997-2002 Junior and Senior Research Fellowship, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India
1998 Exchange Scholarship, Indo Swiss Collaboration in Biotechnology, Department of Pathology, Geneva Medical School, Switzerland
2001 Professor S. Krishnaswamy Memorial Travel Assistance Endowment, Madurai Kamaraj University, India to attend the 101st American Society for Microbiology General Meeting, Orlando, FL  
2002 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India,  travel award to attend the 6th International Leprosy Congress, Salvador, Brazil      
2002 Committee for Science and Technology in Developing Countries (COSTED), travel award to attend the 16th International  Leprosy Congress, Salvador, Brazil
2006 Keystone Symposia Postdoctoral Scholarship,“Determinants of Host resistance and susceptibility”, Keystone, CO
2004-2006 Post Doctoral Fellowship Grant, Heiser Program for Research in Leprosy and
Tuberculosis, New York Community Trust
2007 Postdoctoral Career Development Training Grant-North East Biodefense Center
(NIAID Region II Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research)
2007-2010 NIH Pathway to Independence- K99/R00, NIAID, NIH
2010 International Cytokine Society-Young Investigator Award-2nd place 
2010 Guest Editor-Special issue on Th17 cytokines in host immunity, Cytokine Growth Factor Reviews
2011 Pfizer-Showell Travel Award, American Association of Immunologists

Editorial Responsibilities:

2009-present Editorial Board, The Journal of Immunity and Infectious Diseases
2010-present Academic Editor, PloS ONE 
2010-present Associate Editor, The Journal of Immunology
2009-present Associate Faculty, Faculty of 1000, Biology
2013-present Editorial Board, Infection and Immunity

Ad-hoc Reviewer for Journals:

Nature Immunology
Nature Medicine
Journal of Immunology
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Gene Therapy
European Journal of Immunology
Infection and Immunity
The Journal of Experimental Medicine
Infectious Diseases
BMC Microbiology
Cytokine and Growth Factors Review
Plos ONE
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Expert Reviews In Respiratory Medicine
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
PloS pathogens
Trends in Immunology
Science Signaling
Journal of Clinical Immunology
Nature Education
European Journal of Immunology.

Professional Societies and Organizations:

2002-2007 Trainee Member, American Association of Immunologists
2007-present Member, American Association of Immunologists   
2009-present Member, American Society for Microbiology
2010-present Member, The International Cytokine Society
2013-present Member, American Thoracic Society           


1999-2002 Practical Lab Course in Immunotechnology, Master’s Course in Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai, India.
2009-2013 Cytotoxic effector mechanisms, Lecture to Graduate Program in Immunology.
2010 Faculty Facilitator for “Immunology in Health and Disease”- Small group learning.
2010-2012 Infection and Immunity, Pathogen subversion of host immunity. Lecture to students in the Undergraduate Immunology course
2011-2013 Delayed type hypersensitivity, Animal models of Autoimmunity, Lecture to 1st year Medical students. Immunology in health and disease.
2012 American Thoracic Society, Post graduate course in “Host Pathogen Interaction”. New vaccine strategies to treat pulmonary infections.

Peer-Reviewed Manuscripts:

1. A.K.Shabaana, R.Venkatasubramani, N.P.Shankernarayan, D.C.Hoessli and K.Dharmalingam. Cytokine profiles in paraffin-embedded biopsy samples of lepromatous patients: semi-quantitative measurement of cytokine mRNA using RT-PCR. International J. Leprosy. 2001. 69(3) :204-215.

2. A.K.Shabaana, N.P.Shankernarayan and K.Dharmalingam. M. leprae 18-KDa heat shock protein gene is polymorphic. Current Science. 2003. Jan (84):64-70.

3. R.S.Santhosh, S.Karutha Pandian, N.Lini, A.K.Shabaana, A.Nagavardhini, and K. Dharmalingam. Cloning of mce1 locus of Mycobacterium leprae in Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 SMR5 and evaluation of expression of mce1 gemes in M.smegmatis and M.leprae. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 2005. Aug 1, 45(2): 291-302.

4. Shabaana.A.K.#,K.Kulangara#, I.Semac, Y.Parel, S.Ilangumaran, K.Dharmalingam, C. Chizzolini, and D.C.Hoessli. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannas modulate cytokine production in human T helper cells by interfering with raft/microdomain signaling. Cell. Mol. Life. Sci. 2005. Jan, 62(2): 179-87. # Equal contribution.

5. J.E.Pearl, S.A.Khader, A.Solache, L.Gilmartin, N.Ghilardi, F.deSauvage and A.M. Cooper. IL-27 signaling compromises control of bacterial growth in mycobacteria-infected mice. J Immunol. 2004. Dec 15, 173(12): 7490-7496.

6. S.A.Khader, J.E.Pearl, K.Sakamoto, L.Gilmartin, G.K.Bell, D.M.Jelly-Gibbs, N.Ghilardi, F.Sauvage and A.M.Cooper. IL-23 compensates for the absence of IL-12p70 and is essential for the IL-17 response during tuberculosis but is dispensable for protection and antigen specific IFN-g responses if IL-12p70 is available. J. Immunol. 2005. Jul 15.175(2):788-795.

7. S.A.Khader, S.Partida-Sanchez, G.Bell, D.M.Jelly-Gibbs, S.Swain, J.E.Pearl, N.Ghilardi, F.deSauvage, F.E.Lund, A.M.Cooper. IL-12p40 is required for dendritic cell migration and T cell priming following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2006. Jul 10, 203 (7): 1805-1815. -Cited in Research Highlights, Immune responses. August 2006, 6;568,  Nature Reviews in Immunology.

8. A. Cruz, S.A.Khader, E. Torrado, A. Fraga, J.E. Pearl, J. Pedrosa, A. M. Cooper and  A.G.Castro. Cutting Edge: IFN-g regulates the induction and expansion of IL-17-producing CD4 T cells during mycobacterial infection J. Immunol. 2006. Aug1. 177(3)1:1416-1420.

9. S.A.Khader, G.Bell. J.E.Pearl, J.J. Fountain, J-M.Moreno, G.E.Ciley, F. Shen, S.M.Eaton, S.L.Gaffen, S.S.Swain, R.M.Locksley, T.Randall, L.Haynes and A.M.Cooper. IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge.   Nature Immunology, Apr;8(4):369-77.

10.  R.T.Robinson, S.A. Khader, R.M.Locksley, E. Lien, S.T.Smiley, and   A.M.Cooper. Yersinia pestis evades TLR4-dependent induction of IL12(p40)2 by dendritic cells and subsequent cell migration. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15;181(8):5560-7.

11. S.A.Khader*, J.Rangel-Moreno, J.J.Fountain, C.Martino, W.Reiley, J.E.Pearl, G.Winslow, D.L.Woodland, T.D.Randall and A.M. Cooper. Pulmonary expression of homeostatic chemokines is essential for protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J.Immunol. 2009. Dec 15;183(12):8004-14.

12. Y.Lin, S.Ritchea, A.Logar, S.Slight, M.Messmer, J.Rangel-Moreno, L.Gulgani, J.Alcorn, H.Strawbridge, S.M. Park, R.Onishi, N.Nyugen, M.Walters, D. Pociask, T.Randall, S.L. Gaffen, Y.Iwakura, J.Kolls and S.A.Khader*.
 IL-17 is required for  Th1 immunity and host resistance to the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis LVS. Immunity. 2009 Nov 20;31(5):799-810. – A commentary article highlighting these findings was published in the same issue “Interleukin-17 Kick-Starts T Helper 1 Cell Differentiation” (Immunity, Nov 20;31;700-702).

13. R.Robinson, S.A.Khader, C.A.Martino, J.J. Fountain, M.Teixeira-Coelho, JE.Pearl, J.R. Conejo-      Garcia, S.T.Smiley, G.M.Winslow, D.L. Woodland, M.J.Walter, U.Gubler, A.M.Cooper. M.tuberculosis    infection induces il12rb1 splicing to generate a novel IL12RB1 isoform that enhances DC migration. J. Exp. Med. 2010 207: 591-605.

14. R.R. Rapaka, D.Ricks, J.F.Alcorn, K.Chen, S.A. Khader, M. Zheng, S.Plevy, E.Bengtén, and J. K. Kolls. Conserved natural IgM antibodies mediate innate and adaptive immunity against the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis. J.Exp.Med. 2010. 207:2907-19.

15. A.Kudva, E.V.Scheller, K.M.Robinson, C.R.Crowe, S.R.Slight, S.A.Khader, P.J.Dubin, R.I.Enelow, J.K.Kolls, J.F. Alcorn. Influenza A inhibits Th17 mediated host defense against Bacterial Pneumonia. J. Immunol. 2011 Feb 1;186(3):1666-74.

16. D. Kang, Y. Lin, J. Rangel-Moreno, T. Randall, S.A.Khader*. Profiling early immune responses in the lung during murine tuberculosis. Plos ONE. Jan 13;6(1):e16161.
17.Rangel-Moreno, D.Carragher, J.Hwang, M.Luz Garcia-Hernandez, K.Kusser, L.Hartson, W.Ouyang, J.Kolls, S.A. Khader, T.D. Randall. The development of inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT) is dependent on IL-

17. Nature Immunology.  2011, 639-646.   A special commentary highlighting the finding was published in News and Views of the same issue of Nature Immunology entitled “An unexpected role for IL-17 in lymphoid organogenesis” by T. Cupedo (Nature Immunology, 2011.12: 590-592).

18. S.R. Slight, Y.Lin, M.Messmer, and S.A. Khader*. Francisella tularensis LVS induces Interleukin-12 p40 cytokines in dendritic cells and mediates Dendritic cell migration and T cell polarization.2011. Cytokine. 55 (2011) 372–379.

19. S.A.Khader*, L.Guglani, J.Rangel-Moreno, J.J Fountain, C.Martino, J. E.Pearl, Y. Lin, W.Ouyang, T.Randall and A.M.Cooper*. IL-23 is required for long-term containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in the lung. J.Immunol. 2011. Nov 15;187(10):5402-7.

20. R.Gopal, Y.Lin, S.Slight, N.Nuthalapati, N.Obermajer, M.Ahmed, W.Ouyang, P.Kalinski and S.A Khader*. Interleukin-23 dependent IL-17 drives Th1 responses following Mycobacterium bovis  BCG vaccination. European Journal of Immunology. 2012. Feb 42(2):364-373. A commentary highlighting the paper was published in the “In this issue” segment of the journal.

21. L.Guglani, R.Gopal, J. Rangel-Moreno, B.Junecko, Y.Lin, E.V.Scheller, J.Alcorn,  T.Berger, T.W.Mak, T.Randall, T.Reinhart, Y.Chan, and S.A.Khader*. Lipocalin 2 regulates inflammation during mycobacterial pulmonary infection. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e50052. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050052. Epub 2012 Nov 20

22. Slight SR, Rangel-Moreno J, Gopal R, Lin Y, Fallert Junecko BA, Mehra S, Selman M, Becerril-Villanueva E, Baquera-Heredia J, Pavon L, Kaushal D, Reinhart TA, Randall TD, Khader SA*. CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2013. Feb 1: 123 (2):712-726.

23. N.Hernandez-Santos, A.C. Peterson, A.R. Huppler, S.A. Khader, K.C.McKenna and S.L.Gaffen. Th17 cells confer long term adaptive immunity to oral mucosal Candida albicans infections. Mucosal Immunology. 2013. 6, 900-910.

24. R.Gopal, J.Rangel-Moreno, S.Slight, Y.Lin,  H.F.Nawar, B.A. Fallert  Junecko, T.A. Reinhart, J.Kolls,T.D. Randall, T.D. Connell and  S.A. Khader*. Interleukin-17-dependent CXCL-13 mediates mucosal vaccine-induced immunity against tuberculosis Mucosal Immunology. 2013. 6, 972–984. Highlighted as a featured article in the journal.

25. N.Obermajer, J.Wong, R.P.Edwards, K.Chen, M.Scott, S.A.Khader, K.Odunsi, T.R.Billiar and P.Kalinski. Induction and stability of human Th17 cells require endogenous NOS2 and cGMP-dependent NO signaling. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2013, 210:1433-1445.

26. S.R. Slight, L.Monin, R.Gopal, L.Avery, M.Davis, H.Cleveland, Tim.D. Oury, J.Rangel-Moreno, S.A.Khader*. Short Communication: Interleukin-10 restrains Interleukin-17 to limit lung pathology following pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis LVS. American Journal of Pathology. 2013 Nov; 183(5):1397-404.

27. R.Gopal, L.Monin, D.Torres, S.Slight, S.Mehra, K.McKenna, B.A.Fallert Junecko, T.A.Reinhart, J.Kolls, R.Báez-Saldaña, A.Cruz-Lagunas, T.S.Rodríguez-Reyna, N.P.Kumar, P.Tessier, J.Roth, M.Selman, E.Becerril-Villanueva, J.Baquera-Heredia, B.Cumming, V.O.Kasprowicz, A.JC. Steyne, S. Babu, D.Kaushal, J.Zúñiga, T.Vogl, J.Rangel-Moreno and S.A. Khader*. S100A8/A9 proteins mediate neutrophilic inflammation and lung pathology during tuberculosis. The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2013 Nov 1;188(9):1137-46.

28. D.Torres-García, A.Cruz-Lagunas, M.C.García-Sancho, R.Fernández-Plata, R.Baez-Saldaña, C.Mendoza-Milla, A.Carrera-Eusebio, S.Ramírez-Bravo5, L.Campos, J.Angeles, G.Vargas-Alarcón, J.Granados, R.Gopal, S.A.Khader, E.J.Yunis, J.Zuñiga.Variants in toll-like receptor 9 gene influence susceptibility to tuberculosis in a Mexican population. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2013 Sep 21;11(1):220. [Epub ahead of print].

29. R.Gopal, J.Rangel-Moreno, B.Fallert Junecko, D.Mallon, K.Chen, D.Pociask, T.D. Connell, T.A.Reinhart, J.F.Alcorn, T.M.Ross, J.K.Kolls, and S.A.Khader*. Short Communication: Mucosal pre-exposure to Th17-inducing adjuvants exacerbates pathology following influenza infection.  American Journal of Pathology. 2013 Oct 31. doi:pii: S0002-9440(13)00667-6. 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.09.012. [Epub ahead of print].

Review articles/ Book Chapters:

1. A.M.Cooper and S.A.Khader. IL-12p40, an inherently agonistic cytokine. Trends in Immunology. 2007. Jan 28(1): 33-8.

2. A.M.Cooper, A.Solache and S.A.Khader. Interleukin-12 and tuberculosis: an old story revisited. Current Opinions in Immunology.August 2007.Volume 19, Issue 4:441-447

3. S.A.Khader and A.M. Cooper. IL-23 and IL-17 in tuberculosis. Cytokine . 2008 Feb: 41(2): 79-83.
– Received the honor of  “Top Cited Article 2006-2010” given by the journal in 2011.

4. A.M.Cooper and S.A.Khader . The role of cytokines in the initiation, expansion, and control of cellular immunity to tuberculosis. Immunological Reviews 2008. Vol. 226: 191–204.

5. S.A.Khader and J.Kolls. IL-17 in mucosal host defense in Th17 Cells: Role in Inflammation  and Autoimmune Disease”. Edited by Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Di Padova, Franco.  2009. Book Chapter.

6. S.A.Khader, Sarah Gaffen and Jay Kolls. Th17 cells at the cross roads of innate and adaptive immunity against infectious diseases at the mucosa. Mucosal Immunology. 2009.  Online. 8 July 2009. doi:10.1038/mi.2009.100.

7. Y.Lin, S.Slight and S.A.Khader *. Role of IL-17 in vaccine-induced immunity. Seminars in Immunopathology. 2010 Mar; 32(1):79-90.  

8. L.Guglani and S.A.Khader*. IL-17 in mucosal immunity and inflammation. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2010 Mar 5(2):120-127.

9. S.A.Khader* and R. Gopal. Interleukin-17 in immunity to intracellular pathogens. Virulence. 2010. Sep-Oct;1(5):423-7.

10. S.A.Khader*. Editorial. Th17 cytokines; The good, the bad and the unknown. Cytokine Growth reviews. 2010 Dec; 21(6):403-4

11. J.K. Kolls and S.A.Khader. The role of IL-17 in primary mucosal immunity. Cytokine Growth Reviews. . 2010 Dec; 21(6):443-8.

12. J. Kolls and S.A.Khader. Th17 cells in health and disease. Edited by Shuiping Jiang. Springer New York. 2011. Book Chapter.

13. J.Rangel-Moreno, D.M. Carragher, M. Garcia-Hernandez, J.Y.Hwang, K.Kusser, L.Hartson, J.K.Kolls, S.A.Khader and T.D.Randall. Induction of BALT in the absence of IL-17. Nature Immunology. Correspondence. Nature Immunology. 2012. 13, 2.doi:10.1038/ni.2168.

14. S.A.Khader*. Restraining IL-17: Del1 deals the blow. News and views, Nature Immunology, 2012 Apr 18; 13(5):433-5. doi: 10.1038/ni.2290.

15. Samantha R. Slight and S. A. Khader*. Chemokines shape the immune responses to tuberculosis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2012 Nov 15. doi:pii: S1359-6101(12)00079-2. 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2012.10.002.

16. L.M.Monin and S.A.Khader*. Editorial: B cells produce CXCL13 in lymphoid neogenesis during COPD: the new kid on the block? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2013. Jun1 :187(11):1162-1164.

17. R.Gopal and S.A.Khader*. Editorial: Vaccines against tuberculosis: Moving forward with new concepts. Expert reviews in Vaccines. 2013. (doi: 10.1586/14760584.2013.814836). Aug 24 online.