Helen L. Stoever Professor of Molecular Microbiology

Hultgren Lab website

Research Interests:

Our lab blends genetic, genomic, imaging, structural, biochemical, clinical and translational strategies to study the interface between a pathogen and its host.

PubMed Publications: for Hultgren + SJ
Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences profile

Office Address:
Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology&Immunology
Washington University School of Medicine
10260 McDonnell Pediatric Research Building
660 S. Euclid Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63110

Phone, office: 314-362-6772
Fax: 314-362-1232
Email: hultgren [at] wusm.wustl.edu    


1981 B.S., Microbiology, Indiana University

1987Ph.D., Microbiology, Northwestern University
1987-1989 Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Umea, Sweden

Current Position:

Helen L. Stoever Professor of Molecular Microbiology
Director of the Center for Women’s Infectious Diseases Research
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (WUSM)

Academic Positions and Employment:
2007 Director of the Center for Women’s Infectious Diseases
2000-present Helen L. Stoever Professor of Molecular Microbiology, WUSM
1998-2000 Professor of Molecular Microbiology, WUSM
1995-1998 Associate Professor of Molecular Microbiology, WUSM
1989-1995 Assistant Professor of Molecular Microbiology, WUSM
1989 Instructor in Molecular Microbiology, WUSM
1987-1989 Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Microbiology, University of Umea, Sweden
1983-1987 Research Assistant, Microbiology Department, Northwestern University
1981-1983 Research Associate, Pathology Department, Northwestern University

University and Hospital Appointments and Committees:

Molecular Microbiology & Microbial Pathogenesis Steering Committee.  Regular duties include student advising and being a committee member on our students’ qualifying exams.

Subcommittee on Research for the Liaison Committee on Medical Education Self-Study.

Faculty Disclosure Review Committee.  This committee is charged with formulating the Conflict of Interest Policy for Washington University Medical School and managing all such conflicts.

Coordinator of the Washington University-Umeå University Network.  This network will provide over $500,000 for funding postdoctoral fellowships for the faculty in the Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences at Washington University.

Molecular Microbiology Faculty Committee.  Meets regularly to discuss issues concerning the faculty and future goals.

Committee of the Center for Infectious Disease Research.  This committee is charged with discussing the goals, opportunities and directions of the CIDR.

Kauffman Entrepreneurship Pathway Advisory Committee.

Genetics Chair Search Committee.

Biochemistry Chair Search Committee.

Gender Equity Committee.

Pre-clinical Planning Committee.

Biochemistry Faculty Search Committee.

Basic Sciences Committee

Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences Program Review Committee

Honors and Awards:

1984-1987 University Scholar, Northwestern University
1988-1989 Swedish Medical Research Council, Postdoctoral Research Fellowship
1990-1992 Markey Young Investigator Faculty Award 1997Honorary Doctor of Philosophy at Umeå University, Sweden 1997 Chairman of Gordon Conference on Microbial Attachment and Signaling
1998 Nobel Fellowship
1998 Eli Lilly Award
1998 St. Louis Academy of Sciences Innovator of the Year Award
1998 Shipley Lecturer, Harvard University1999NIH Merit Award
2000 Harry M. Rose Infectious Disease Lecturer, Columbia University
2000 Helen L. Stoever Professor of Molecular Microbiology, WUMS
2001 Henry Pinkerton Lecturer, Saint Louis University2000, 2001, 2004Excellence in Mentoring Award, WUMS 2002 Coursemaster of the Year Award, WUMS2003Fellow, American Society for Microbiology
2004 Howard T. Ricketts Symposium Lecturer, University of Chicago
2004 Ippen-Ihler Lecturer, Texas A&M Univ. Health Science School of Medicine
2005 John H. Erskine Lecturer in Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Hospital
2007 Neal Groman Lecturer in Dept. of Microbiology, University of Washington
2007 Academic Women’s Network Faculty Mentor Award

Teaching Responsibilities:

Lecturer: Bio 5392, Molecular Microbiology and Pathogenesis, 3-4 lectures/year 1995-present.
Lecturer: Bio 5217, Microbial Pathogenesis Special Topics Course, 1 lecture/year 1989-1994.
Guest Lecturer: CME New Techniques in Urinary Incontinence and Female Urology, 2004
Guest Lecturer: Markey Special Emphasis Pathway, 1995.
Course Master: Bio 5416, Molecular Microbiology & Pathogenesis Journal Club, 15-30 sessions/yr, 1989-1999.
Guest Lecturer: Bio 5325, Proteins: Structure/Function, in Molecular Biophysics Program, 1998.
Co-Course Master: MO4 5007, Medical Microbiology Selective Program, “New Strategies for the Discovery of Novel Antibiotics,” 5-10 sessions/yr, 1998.
Course Master: M30 526, Microbes and Pathogenesis (introductory microbiology course for the first-year medical students), 3-5 lectures/year, 1999-present.

Trainees: Students awarded PhD, current position

Lynn Slonim (1993), Director, Clinical Microbiology Lab, University of Rochester
Meta Kuehn (1993), Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Duke University
Rob Striker (1994), Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Wisconsin
Danielle Hung (1998)                   
Evan Saulino (1999), Medical Fellow, Oregon Health Sciences University
Gabriel Soto (1999), Medical Fellow, Washington University
Joel Schilling (2001), Medical Fellow, Washington University
Juan Martinez (2001), Assistant Professor of Microbiology, University of Chicago
Michelle Barnhart (2002), Research Scientist, Novozyme, Davis, CA
Frederic Sauer (2002), Orion Investment Company, St. Louis
Greg Anderson (2004), Postdoctoral Fellow, Dartmouth College                                                             
Yvonne Lee (2004), Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California-San Diego
Lloyd Robinson (2004)                 
Andrew Kau (2005), Resident, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD
Kelly Wright (2006)                      
Eric M. Miller (2006), Research Analyst, The Mattson Jack Group of St. Louis
David A. Rosen (2008), Medical Student, Washington University School of Medicine
Thomas Hannan (2008), Postdoctoral Fellow, Washington University

Postdoctoral fellows, current position

F. Jacob-Dubuisson, PhD, Research Director Class II, Institut Pasteur, Paris
Mary-Jane Lombardo, PhD, Center for Vaccine Research, University of Maryland
Charles Hal Jones, PhD, Principal Research Scientist, Infectious Diseases, Wyeth Research
David Thanassi, PhD, Asst. Professor of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, SUNY-Stony Brook
Matthew Mulvey, PhD, Assistant Professor of Pathology, University of Utah
Julie Bouckaert, PhD, VIB Project Leader, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels
William  Lyon, PhD, Assoc. Director of Life Sciences and Technology Transfer, Univ. of Indiana
Matthew Chapman, PhD, Asst. Prof. of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, U. of MichiganJames Bann, PhD, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Wichita State University
David Hunstad, MD, Asst. Prof. of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Washington University
Chia Hung, PhD, Senior Scientist, Molecular Microbiology, Washington University
Steven Martin, PhD, Senior Scientist, Sequoia Sciences, Inc., St. Louis, MO
Patrick Seed, MD, PhD, Asst. Prof. of Pediatrics and Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, Duke Univ.
Sheryl Justice, PhD, Asst. Prof. of Pediatrics, School of Medicine & Public Health, Ohio State Univ.
Craig Smith, Ph.D., Staff Scientist, Washington University School of Medicine
Eric M. Miller, Ph.D., Research Analyst, The Mattson Jack Group, St. Louis, MO
Ericka Hayes, MD, Instructor, Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine
Indira Mysorekar, Ph.D., Instructor, Department of OB/GYN, Washington University
Molly Ingersoll, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Mount Sinai, New York                 
Jennifer Elam, Ph.D., Managing Director, Center Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Wash. U.
Lynette Cegelski, Ph.D., Asst. Professor, Chemistry, Stanford University, CaliforniaCurrent traineesKaren Dodson, PhD, Instructor
Joseph Palermo, MD, PhD, Instructor
Swaine Chen, MD, PhD, Instructor
Kimberly Kline, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow
Maria Hadjifrangiskou, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow
Maria Kostakioti, Postdoctoral Fellow
Thomas Hannan, DVM, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow
Jeffrey Henderson, MD,PhD, Instructor
Ashley Nenninger, Postdoctoral Fellow
Corinne Garafalo, Graduate student
Pascale Guiton, Graduate student
Hailyn Nelson, MD/PhD  student
Ender Volkan, Graduate student
Drew Schwartz, MD/PhD student

Current Rotation Students:

Sarah Green, Rotation Student


Jerome Pinkner, MS, Research Lab Manger
Chia Hung, Ph.D., Senior Scientist
Jennifer Walker, Research Technician I
Elizabeth Stiles, Executive Secretary

Thesis committees (year awarded), advisor:

Paul Blount (1990), John Merlie 
Karen Dodson (1990), Doug Berg 
Kathy Westin (1990), Doug Berg
Hank Lockman (1991), Roy Curtiss 
Diana Beckman (1994), Bob Kranz
Andrew Kloek (1997), Dan Goldberg
Carmela Gibson (1998), Mike Caparon
Dena Minning-Wenz (1998), Dan Goldberg
William Lyon (1999), Mike Caparon
Suzanne Dawid (1999), Joseph St. Geme
David Hendrixson (1999), Joseph St. Geme
Avelina Espinosa (2000), Sam Stanley
Andy Herr (2000), Gabriel Waksman
Yuna Ayla (2001), Enrico DiCera
Paula Revell (2001), Virginia Miller
Doran Fink (2001), Joseph St. Geme
Rebecca Stith (2001), Bill Goldman
Andrew Syder (2002), Jeffrey Gordon
Indira Mysorekar (2003), Jeffrey Gordon
Jian Xu (2003), Jeffrey Gordon
Sung Joon Kim (2004), Jeffrey Gordon
Darcy Gill (2004), John Atkinson
Amy Zoch-Buscher (2004), Joseph St. Geme
Michael Meehl (2004), Mike Caparon
Jessica Sexton (2004), Joseph Vogel
Shane Cotter (2004), Joseph St. Geme
Jung Oh (2005), Jeffrey Gordon
Jason Rosch (2005), Mike Caparon
Rob Feissner (2006), Robert Kranz
Paul Davis  (2006), Sam Stanley
Chris Reigstad  (2006), Jeffrey Gordon
Jun Liu  (2006), Daniel Goldberg
Carr Vincent (2006), Joseph Vogel
Marios Giannakis (2008), Jeffrey Gordon
Shanna Dew, Phillip Tarr
Tracy Nicholson, David Hunstad
Tanya Yatsuneko, Jeffrey Gordon
Brian Muegge, Jeffrey Gordon

Editorial Responsibilities: Ad-hoc reviewer of manuscripts for the following journals:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Molecular Microbiology
Journal of Bacteriology
Infection and Immunity
EMBO Journal
Cellular Microbiology

Professional Societies and Organizations:

American Society for Microbiology, 1983 – present
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1991 – present
The Protein Society, 1992 – present
The Erlanger Society, 1994 – present
Scientific Advisory Board, MedImmune, Inc., 1995 – 2007
Medical Advisory Board Chairman, Sequoia Sciences, Inc., 2005 – present
Committee for the American Academy of Microbiology on the Microbial Origins of Chronic Human Disease, 2001 – present
NIH Scientific Review Urology Special Emphasis Panel, 2001 – present
NIH Scientific Review Urologic and Kidney Development and Genitourinary Diseases Study Section, 2004
ASM Biodefense Research Committee and Meeting Organizer, 2003 – present
American Urological Association Research Priorities Group Committee, 2003 – present
NIH Advisory Committee on Research on Women’s Health, 2006 – present
Genome Canada Site Visit Committee, 2007 – present
Scientific Advisory Board Member, BWF Research Consortium on Preterm Birth, 2007 – present

Bibliography: Peer-Reviewed Manuscripts:

  1. Hultgren SJ and Hidvegi DF. Improved transmission electron microscopy technique for the study of cytologic material. Acta. Cytol. 1985; 29: 179-183.
  2. Hultgren SJ, Porter TN, Schaeffer AJ, and Duncan JL. Role of type 1 pili and effects of phase variation on lower urinary tract infections produced by Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 1985; 50: 370-377.
  3. Hultgren SJ, Schwan WR, Schaeffer AJ, and Duncan JL. Regulation of production of type 1 pili among urinary tract isolates of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 1986; 54: 613-620.
  4. Schaeffer AJ, Schwan WR, Hultgren SJ, and Duncan JL. Relationship of type 1 pilus expression in Escherichia coli to ascending urinary tract infections in mice. Infect. Immun. 1987; 55: 373-380.
  5. Normark S, Hultgren S, Marklund BI, Stromberg N, and Tennent J. Biogenesis of pili adhesins associated with urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1988; 54: 405-409.
  6. Hultgren SJ, Lindberg F, Magnusson G, Kihlberg J, Tennent JM and Normark S. The PapG adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli contains separate regions for receptor binding and for incorporation into the pilus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1989; 86: 4357-4361.
  7. Kihlberg J, Hultgren SJ, Normark S, and Magnusson G. Probing of the combining site of the PapG adhesin of uropathogenic E. coli bacteria by synthetic analogues of galabiose. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1989; 111: 6364-6368.
  8. Lindberg F, Tennent JM, Hultgren SJ, Lund B, and Normark S. PapD, a periplasmic transport protein in P-pilus biogenesis. J. Bacteriol. 1989; 171: 6052-6058.
  9. Hultgren SJ, Duncan JL, Schaeffer AJ, and Amundsen SK. Mannose-sensitive haemagglutination in the absence of piliation in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 1990; 4: 1311-1318.
  10. Kuehn MJ, Normark S, and Hultgren SJ. Immunoglobulin-like PapD chaperone caps and uncaps interactive surfaces of nascently translocated pilus subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991; 88: 10586-10590.Holmgren A, Kuehn MJ, Branden CI, and Hultgren SJ. Conserved immunoglobulin-like features in a family of periplasmic pilus chaperones in bacteria. EMBO J. 1992; 11: 1617-1622.
  11. Kuehn MJ, Heuser J, Normark S, and Hultgren SJ. P pili in uropathogenic E. coli are composite fibres with distinct fibrillar adhesive tips. Nature 1992; 356: 252-255.Slonim LN, Pinkner JS, Branden CI, and Hultgren SJ. Interactive surface in the PapD chaperone cleft is conserved in pilus chaperone superfamily and essential in subunit recognition and assembly. EMBO J. 1992; 11: 4747-4756.
  12. Jacob-Dubuisson F, Heuser J, Dodson K, Normark S, and Hultgren S. Initiation of assembly and association of the structural elements of a bacterial pilus depend on two specialized tip proteins. EMBO J. 1993; 12: 837-847.
  13. Tewari R, MacGregor JI, Ikeda T, Little JR, Hultgren SJ, and Abraham SN. Neutrophil activation by nascent FimH subunits of type 1 fimbriae purified from the periplasm of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 1993; 268: 3009-3015.
  14. Dodson K, Jacob-Dubuisson F, Striker R, and Hultgren SJ. Outer membrane PapC usher discriminately recognizes periplasmic chaperone-pilus subunit complexes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993; 90: 3670-3674.
  15. Jones CH, Pinkner J, Nicholes A, Slonim L, Abraham S, and Hultgren SJ. FimC is a periplasmic PapD-like chaperone which directs assembly of type 1 pili in bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993; 90: 8397-8401.
  16. Kuehn MJ, Ogg DJ, Kihlberg J, Slonim LN, Flemmer K, Bergfors T, and Hultgren SJ. Structural basis of pilus subunit recognition by the PapD chaperone. Science 1993; 262: 1234-1241.
  17. Striker R, Jacob-Dubuisson F, Frieden C, and Hultgren SJ. Stable fiber-forming and nonfiber-forming chaperone-subunit complexes in pilus biogenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 1994; 269: 12233-12239.
  18. Jacob-Dubuisson F, Striker R, and Hultgren SJ. Chaperone-assisted self-assembly of pili independent of cellular energy. J. Biol. Chem. 1994; 269: 12447-12455.
  19. Jacob-Dubuisson F, Pinkner J, Xu Z, Striker R, Padmanhaban A, and Hultgren SJ. PapD chaperone function in pilus biogenesis depends on oxidant and chaperone-like activities of DsbA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994; 91: 11552-11556.
  20. Tewari R, Ikeda T, Little JR, MacGregor JI, Hultgren SJ, and Abraham SN. The PapG tip adhesin of P fimbriae protects Escherichia coli from neutrophil bactericidal activity. Infect. Immun. 1994; 62: 5296-5304.
  21. Xu Z, Jones CH, Haslam D, Pinkner JS, Dodson K, Kihlberg J, and Hultgren SJ. Molecular dissection of PapD interaction with PapG reveals two chaperone-binding sites. Mol. Microbiol. 1995; 16: 1011-1020.
  22. Jones CH, Pinkner JS, Roth R, Heuser J, Nicholes AV, Abraham SN, and Hultgren SJ. FimH adhesin of type 1 pili is assembled into a fibrillar tip structure in the Enterobacteriaceae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995; 92: 2081-2085.
  23. Striker R, Nilsson U, Stonecipher A, Magnusson G, and Hultgren SJ. Structural requirements for the glycolipid receptor of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 1995; 16: 1021-1029.
  24. Flemmer K, Xu Z, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, and Kihlberg J. Peptides inhibit complexation of the bacterial chaperone PapD and reveal potential to block assembly of virulence associated pili. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1995; 5: 927-932.
  25. St. Geme JW III, Pinkner JS, Krasan GP, Heuser J, Bullitt E, Smith AL, and Hultgren SJ. Haemophilus influenzae pili are composite structures assembled via the HifB chaperone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996; 93: 11913-11918.
  26. Bullitt E, Jones CH, Striker R, Soto G, Jacob-Dubuisson F, Pinkner J, Wick MJ, Makowski L, and Hultgren SJ. Development of pilus organelle subassemblies in vitro depends on chaperone uncapping of a beta zipper. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996; 93: 12890-12895.
  27. Hung DL, Knight SD, Woods RM, Pinkner JS, and Hultgren SJ. Molecular basis of two subfamilies of immunoglobulin-like chaperones. EMBO J. 1996; 15: 3792-3805.
  28. Nilsson U, Striker RT, Hultgren SJ, and Magnusson G. PapG from E. coli J96 recognizes the same saccharide epitope when present on whole bacteria and as isolated protein. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1996; 4: 1809-1817.
  29. Langermann S, Palaszynski S, Barnhart M, Auguste G, Pinkner JS, Burlein J, Barren P, Koenig S, Leath S, Jones CH, and Hultgren SJ. Prevention of mucosal Escherichia coli infection by FimH-adhesin-based systemic vaccination. Science1997; 276: 607-611.
  30. Walse B, Kihlberg J, Karlsson KF, Nilsson M, Wahlund KG, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, and Drakenberg T. Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy study of a peptide from the PapG pilus subunit bound by the Escherichia coli PapD chaperone. FEBS Lett. 1997; 412: 115-120.
  31. Jones CH, Danese PN, Pinkner JS, Silhavy TJ, and Hultgren SJ. The chaperone-assisted membrane release and folding pathway is sensed by two signal transduction systems. EMBO J. 1997; 16: 6394-6406.
  32. Thanassi D, Saulino ET, Lombardo MJ, Roth R, Heuser J, and Hultgren SJ. The PapC usher forms an oligomeric channel: implications for pilus biogenesis across the outer membrane. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998; 95: 3146-3151.
  33. Saulino ET, Thanassi DG, Pinkner JS, and Hultgren SJ. Ramifications of kinetic partitioning on usher-mediated pilus biogenesis. EMBO J. 1998; 17: 2177-2185.
  34. Soto GE, Dodson KW, Ogg D, Liu C, Heuser J, Knight S, Kihlberg J, Jones CH, and Hultgren SJ. Periplasmic chaperone recognition motif of subunits mediates quaternary interactions in the pilus. EMBO J. 1998; 17: 6155-6167.
  35. Mulvey MA, Lopez-Boado YS, Wilson CL, Roth R, Parks WC, Heuser J, and Hultgren SJ. Induction and evasion of host defenses by type 1 piliated uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Science 1998; 282: 1494-1497.
  36. Almqvist F, Guillaume D, Marshall GR, and Hultgren SJ. Efficient regioselective synthesis of enantiomerically pure 4-hydroxymethyl-D2 thiazoline. Tetrahedr. Lett. 1998; 39: 2293-2294.
  37. Karlsson KF, Walse B, Drakenberg T, Roy S, Bergquist KE, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, and Kihlberg J. Binding of peptides in solution by the Escherichia coli chaperone PapD as revealed using an inhibition ELISA and NMR spectroscopy. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1998; 6: 2085-2101.
  38. Hung DL, Knight SD, and Hultgren SJ. Probing conserved surfaces on PapD. Mol. Microbiol. 1999; 31: 773-783.
  39. Hung DL, Pinkner JS, Knight SD, and Hultgren SJ. Structural basis of chaperone self-capping in pilus biogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999; 96: 8178-8183.
  40. Sauer FG, Fütterer K, Pinkner JS, Dodson KW, Hultgren SJ*, and Waksman G. Structural basis of chaperone function and pilus biogenesis. Science 1999; 285: 1058-1061. (*corresponding author)
  41. Choudhury D, Thompson A, Stojanoff V, Langermann S, Pinkner J, Hultgren SJ*, and Knight SD. X-ray structure of the FimC-FimH chaperone-adhesin complex from uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Science 1999; 285: 1061-1066. (*corresponding author)
  42. Wilson CL, Ouellette AJ, Satchell DP, Ayabe T, Lopez-Boado YS, Stratman JL, Hultgren SJ, Matrisian LM, and Parks WC. Regulation of intestinal -defensin activation by the metalloproteinase matrilysin in innate host defense. Science 1999; 286: 113-117.
  43. Goetz GS, Mahmood A, Hultgren SJ, Engle MJ, Dodson K, and Alpers DH. Binding of pili from uropathogenic Escherichia coli to membranes secreted by human colonocytes and enterocytes. Infect. Immun. 1999; 67: 6161-6163.
  44. Krasan GP, Sauer FG, Cutter D, Farley MM, Gilsdorf JR, Hultgren SJ, and St. Geme JW III. Evidence for donor strand complementation in the biogenesis of Haemophilus influenzae hemagglutinating pili. Mol. Microbiol. 2000; 35: 1335-1347.
  45. Barnhart MM, Pinkner JS, Soto GE, Sauer FG, Langermann S, Waksman G, Frieden C, and Hultgren SJ. PapD-like chaperones provide the missing information for folding of pilin proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000; 97: 7709-7714.
  46. Emtenas H, Soto G, Hultgren SJ, Marshall GR, and Almqvist F. Stereoselective synthesis of optically active beta-lactams, potential inhibitors of pilus assembly in pathogenic bacteria. Org. Lett. 2000; 2: 2065-2067.
  47. Langermann S, Mollby R, Burlein JE, Palaszynski SR, Auguste CG, DeFusco A, Strouse R, Schenerman MA, Hultgren SJ, Pinkner JS, Winberg J, Guldevall L, Soderhall M, Ishikawa K, Normark S, and Koenig S. Vaccination with FimH adhesin protects against Escherichia coli cystitis. J. Infect. Dis. 2000; 181: 774-778.
  48. Mahmood A, Engle MJ, Goetz GS, Dodson K, and Alpers DH. Role of intestinal surfactant-like particles as a potential reservoir of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2000; 1523: 49-55.
  49. Martinez JJ, Mulvey MA, Schilling JD, Pinkner JS, and Hultgren SJ. Type 1 pilus-mediated bacterial invasion of bladder epithelial cells. EMBO J. 2000; 19: 2803-2812.
  50. Saulino ET, Bullitt E, and Hultgren SJ. Snapshots of usher-mediated protein secretion and ordered pilus assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000; 97: 9240-9245.
  51. Lopez-Boado YS, Wilson CL, Hooper LV, Gordon JI, Hultgren SJ, and Parks WC. Bacterial exposure induces and activates matrilysin in mucosal epithelial cells. J. Cell Biol. 2000; 148: 1305-1315.Mulvey MA, Schilling JD, Martinez JJ, and Hultgren SJ. Bad bugs and beleaguered bladders: interplay between uropathogenic Escherichia coli and innate host defenses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000; 97: 8829-8835.
  52. Schilling JD, Mulvey MA, Vincent CD, Lorenz RG, and Hultgren SJ. Bacterial invasion augments epithelial cytokine responses to Escherichia coli through a lipopolysaccharide-dependent mechanism. J. Immunol. 2001; 166: 1148-1155.
  53. Hung DL, Raivio TL, Jones CH, Silhavy TJ, and Hultgren SJ. Cpx signaling pathway monitors biogenesis and affects assembly and expression of P pili. EMBO J. 2001; 20: 1508-1518.
  54. Mulvey MA, Schilling JD, and Hultgren SJ. Establishment of a persistent Escherichia coli reservoir during the acute phase of a bladder infection. Infect. Immun. 2001; 69: 4572-4579.
  55. Dodson KW, Pinkner JS, Rose T, Magnusson G, Hultgren SJ*, and Waksman G. Structural basis of the interaction of the pyelonephritic E. coli adhesin to its human kidney receptor. Cell 2001; 105: 733-743. (*corresponding author)
  56. Svensson A, Larsson A, Emtenas H, Hedenstrom M, Fex T, Hultgren SJ, Pinkner JS, Almqvist F, and Kihlberg J. Design and evaluation of pilicides: potential novel antibacterial agents directed against uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Chembiochem. 2001; 2: 915-918.
  57. Martinez JJ and Hultgren SJ. Requirement of Rho-family GTPases in the invasion of type 1-piliated uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Cell. Microbiol. 2002; 4: 19-28.
  58. Chapman MR, Robinson LS, Pinkner JS, Roth R, Heuser J, Hammar M, Normark S, and Hultgren SJ. Role of Escherichia coli curli operons in directing amyloid fiber formation. Science 2002; 295: 851-855.
  59. Bann JG, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, and Frieden C. Real-time and equilibrium 19F-NMR studies reveal the role of domain-domain interactions in the folding of the chaperone PapD. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002; 99: 709-714.
  60. Mysorekar IU, Mulvey MA, Hultgren SJ, and Gordon JI. Molecular regulation of urothelial renewal and host defenses during infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277: 7412-7419.
  61. Hung C, Bouckaert J, Hung D, Pinkner JS, Widberg C, DeFusco A, Auguste CG, Strouse R, Langermann S, Waksman G, and Hultgren SJ. Structural basis of tropism of Escherichia coli to the bladder during urinary tract infection. Mol. Microbiol. 2002; 44: 903-915.
  62. Knight SD, Choudhury D, Hultgren SJ, Pinkner JS, Stojanoff V, and Thompson A. Structure of the S pilus periplasmic chaperone SfaE at 2.2 Å resolution. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 2002; 58: 1016-1022.
  63. Jones CH, Dexter P, Evans AK, Liu C, Hultgren SJ, and Hruby DE. Escherichia coli DegP protease cleaves between paired hydrophobic residues in a natural substrate: the PapA pilin. J. Bacteriol. 2002; 184: 5762-5771.
  64. Emtenas H, Ahlin K, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, and Almqvist F. Design and parallel solid-phase synthesis of ring-fused 2-pyridinones that target pilus biogenesis in pathogenic bacteria. J. Comb. Chem. 2002; 4: 630-639.
  65. Thanassi DG, Stathopoulos C, Dodson K, Geiger D, and Hultgren SJ. Bacterial outer membrane ushers contain distinct targeting and assembly domains for pilus biogenesis. J. Bacteriol. 2002; 184: 6260-6269.
  66. Schilling JD, Lorenz RG, and Hultgren SJ. Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole on recurrent bacteriuria and bacterial persistence in mice infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 2002; 70: 7042-7049.
  67. Sauer FG, Pinkner JS, Waksman G, and Hultgren SJ. Chaperone priming of pilus subunits facilitates a topological transition that drives fiber formation. Cell 2002; 111: 543-551.
  68. Emtenas H, Carlsson M, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, and Almqvist F. Stereoselective synthesis of optically active bicyclic beta-lactam carboxylic acids that target pilus biogenesis in pathogenic bacteria. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2003; 1: 1308-1314.
  69. Schilling JD, Martin SM, Hunstad DA, Patel KP, Mulvey MA, Justice SS, Lorenz RG, and Hultgren SJ. CD14- and Toll-like receptor-dependent activation of bladder epithelial cells by lipopolysaccharide and type 1 piliated Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 2003; 71: 1470-1480.
  70. Schilling JD, Martin SM, Hung CS, Lorenz RG, and Hultgren SJ. Toll-like receptor 4 on stromal and hematopoietic cells mediates innate resistance to uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003; 100: 4203-4208.
  71. Barnhart MM, Sauer FG, Pinkner JS, and Hultgren SJ. Chaperone-subunit-usher interactions required for donor strand exchange during bacterial pilus assembly. J. Bacteriol. 2003; 185: 2723-2730.
  72. Anderson GG, Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, Roth R, Heuser J, and Hultgren SJ. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science 2003; 301: 105-107.
  73. Larsson A, Ohlsson J, Dodson KW, Hultgren SJ, Nilsson U, and Kihlberg J. Quantitative studies of the binding of the Class II PapG adhesin from uropathogenic Escherichia coli to oligosaccharides. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2003; 11: 2255-2261.
  74. Justice SS, Hung CS, Theriot JA, Fletcher DA, Anderson GG, Footer MJ, and Hultgren SJ. Differentiation and developmental pathways of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urinary tract pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004;101: 1333-1338.
  75. Bates JM, Raffi HM, Prasadan K, Mascarenhas R, Laszik Z, Maeda N, Hultgren SJ, and Kumar S. Tamm-Horsfall protein knockout mice are more prone to urinary tract infection: rapid communication. Kidney Int. 2004; 65: 791-797.
  76. Sexton JA, Pinkner JS, Roth R, Heuser JE, Hultgren SJ, and Vogel JP. The Legionella pneumophila PilT homologue DotB exhibits ATPase activity that is critical for intracellular growth. J. Bacteriol. 2004; 186: 1658-1666.
  77. Roberts JA, Kaack MB, Baskin G, Chapman MR, Hunstad DA, Pinkner JS, and Hultgren SJ. Antibody responses and protection from pyelonephritis following vaccination with purified Escherichia coli PapDG protein. J. Urol. 2004; 171: 1682-1685.
  78. Lee YM, DiGiuseppe PA, Silhavy TJ, and Hultgren SJ. P pilus assembly motif necessary for activation of the CpxRA pathway by PapE in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 2004; 186: 4326-4337.
  79. Bann JG, Pinkner JS, Frieden C, and Hultgren SJ. Catalysis of protein folding by chaperones in pathogenic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004; 101: 17389-17393.
  80. Bouckaert J, Berglund J, Schembri M, DeGenst E, Cools L, Wuhrer M, Hung CS, Pinkner J, Slattegard R, Zavialov A, Choudhury D, Langermann S, Hultgren SJ, Wyns L, Klemm P, Oscarson S, Knight SD, and DeGreve H. Receptor binding studies disclose a novel class of high-affinity inhibitors of the Escherichia coli FimH adhesin. Mol. Microbiol. 2005; 55: 441-455.
  81. Schwan WR, Beck MT, Hultgren SJ, Pinkner J, Woolever NL, and Larson T. Down-regulation of the kps region 1 capsular assembly operon following attachment of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae to host receptors. Infect. Immun. 2005; 73: 1226-1231.
  82. Larsson A, Johansson SM, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, Almqvist F, Kihlberg J, and Linusson A. Multivariate design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of peptide inhibitors of FimC/FimH protein-protein interactions in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Med. Chem. 2005; 48: 935-945.
  83. Ohlsson J, Larsson A, Haataja S, Alajaaski J, Stenlund P, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, Finne J, Kihlberg J, and Nilsson UJ. Structure-activity relationships of galabioside derivatives as inhibitors of E. coli and S. suis adhesins: nanomolar inhibitors of S. suis adhesins. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2005; 3: 886-900.
  84. Kau A, Martin SM, Lyon W, Hayes E, Caparon M, and Hultgren SJ. Enterococcus faecalis tropism for the kidneys in the urinary tract of C57BL/6J mice. Infect. Immun. 2005; 73: 2461-2468.
  85. Hunstad DA, Justice SS, Hung CS, Lauer SR, and Hultgren SJ. Suppression of bladder epithelial cytokine responses by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 2005; 73: 3999-4006.
  86. Wright KJ, Seed PC, and Hultgren SJ. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli flagella aid in efficient colonization of the urinary tract. Infect. Immun. 2005; 73: 7657-7668.
  87. Justice SS, Hunstad DA, Harper-Reiss JR, Duguay AR, Pinkner JS, Bann J, Frieden C, Silhavy TJ, and Hultgren SJ. Periplasmic cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases are not essential for viability but are essential for pilus biogenesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 2005; 187: 7680-7686.
  88. Aberg V, Hedenstrom M, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ, and Almqvist F. C-Terminal properties are important for ring-fused 2-pyridones that interfere with the chaperone function in uropathogenic E. coli. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2005; 3:3886-092.
  89. Hedenstrom M, Emtenas H, Pemberton N, Aberg V, Hultgren SJ, Pinkner JS, Tegman V, Almqvist F, Sethson I, and Kihlberg J. NMR studies of interactions between periplasmic chaperones from uropathogenic E. coli and pilicides that interfere with chaperone function and pilus assembly. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2005; 3:4193-4200.
  90. Isaac DD, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ and Silhavy TJ. The extracytoplasmic adaptor protein CpxP is degraded with substrate by DegP. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2005; 102:17775-17779.
  91. Meehl MA, Pinkner JS, Anderson PJ, Hultgren SJ and Caparon MG. A novel endogenous Inhibitor of the secreted streptococcal NAD-glycohydrolase. PloS Pathog. 2005; 1(4):e35.
  92. Robinson LS, Ashman E, Hultgren SJ and Chapman MR. Secretion of curli fiber subunits is mediated by the OM- localized CsgG protein. Mol. Microbiol. 2006; 59:870-881.
  93. Chen SL, Hung CS, Xu J, Reigstad CS, Magrini V, Sabo A, Blasiar D, Bieri T, Meyer RR, Ozersky P, Armstrong JR, Fulton RS, Latreille JP, Spieth J, Hooton TM, Mardis ER, Hultgren SJ and Gordon JI. Identification of genes subject to positive selection in uropathogenic strains of E. coli: a comparative genomics approach. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2006; 103: 5977-5982.
  94. Remaut H, Rose RJ, Hannan TJ, Hultgren SJ, Radford SE, Ashcroft AE and Waksman G. Donor-strand exchange in chaperone-assisted pilus assembly proceeds through a concerted beta strand displacement mechanism. Mol. Cell. 2006;22(6): 831-42.
  95. Justice SS, Lauer SR, Hultgren SJ and Hunstad DA. Maturation of intracellular Escherichia coli communities requires SurA. Infect. Immun. 2006; 74: 4793-4800.
  96. Berg V, Sellstedt M, Hedenstrom M, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ and Almqvist F. Design, synthesis and evaluation peptidomimetics based on substituted bicylic 2-pyridones-Targeting virulence of uropathogenic E. coli. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2006; 14: 7563-81.Mysorekar IU and Hultgren SJ. Mechanisms of uropathogenic Escherichia coli persistence and eradication from the urinary tract. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2006; 103:4170-5.
  97. Miller E, Garcia T, Hultgren SJ and Oberhauser AF. The mechanical properties of E. coli type 1 pili measured by atomic force microscopy techniques. Biophysics J. 2006; 10: 3848-56.
  98. Pinkner JS, Remaut H, Buelens F, Miller E, Åberg V, Pemberton N, Hedenström M, Larsson A, Seed PS, Waksman G, Hultgren SJ and Almqvist F. Rationally designed small compounds inhibit pilus biogenesis in uropathogenic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006; 103: 17897-902.Justice SS, Hunstad DA, Hultgren SJ. Filamentation by E. coli subverts innate immunity during urinary tract infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2006; 103: 19884-9.
  99. Verger D, Miller E, Remaut H, Waksman G and Hultgren SJ. Molecular mechanism of PapH in controlling P pilus length in E. coli. EMBO Rep. 2006; 12: 1228-32.
  100. Garofalo C, Palermo J, Stamm W, Gordon JI, Hooton TM and Hultgren SJ. Escherichia coli in urine of females suffering from urinary tract infections are competent for IBC-formation. Infect. Immun. 2007; 75: 52-60.
  101. Aberg V, Axner O, Fällman E, Hultgren SJ, and Almqvist F. Pilicides regulate pli expression in E. coli without affecting the functional properties of the pilus rod. Molecular BioSystems. 2007; 3: 214-8.
  102. Verger D, Bullitt E, Hultgren SJ and Waksman G. Crystal Structure of the P Pilus Rod Subunit PapA. PloS Pathog. 2007; 3: 674-682.
  103. Munera D, Hultgren SJ and Fernadez LA. Recognition of the N-terminal ledctin domain of FimH adhesin by the usher FimD is required for type 1 pilus biogenesis. Mol. Microbiol. 2007; 64: 333-346.
  104. Wright KJ, Seed PS, and Hultgren SJ. Development of intracellular bacterial communities of uropathogenic E. coli depends on type 1 pili. Cell. Microbiol. 2007; 9: 2230-41.
  105. Reigstad CS, Hultgren SJ, and Gordon JI. Functional genomic studies of uropathogenic E. coli and host urothelial cells when intracellular bacterial communities are assembled. J. Biol. Chem. 2007; 29: 21259-67.
  106. Lee YM, Dodson KW, and Hultgren SJ. Adaptor function of PapF depends on donor strand exchange in P Pilus biogenesis of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 2007; 14: 5276-83.
  107. Hannan TJ, Mysorekar IU, Chen SL, Walker JN, Jones JM, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ and Seed PC. LeuX tRNA-dependent and independent mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenesis in acute cystitis. Mol. Microbiol. 2007; 67: 116-128.
  108. Rosen DA, Hooton TM, Stamm WE, Humphrey PA, and Hultgren SJ. Detection of intracellular bacterial communities in human urinary tract infection. PloS Med. 2007; 4: 1949-58.
  109. Remaut H, Tang C, Henderson NS, Pinkner JS, Wang T., Hultgren SJ, Thanassi DG, Waksman G, and Li H. Fiber Formation Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane by the Chaperone/Usher Pathway. Cell. 2008; (4): 640-52.
  110. Wellens A*, Garofalo C, Nguyen H, Van Gerven N, Slattegard R, Hernalsteens JP, Wyns L, Oscarson S, De Greve H, Hultgren SJ, and Bouckaert J. Intervening with urinary tract infections using anti-adhesives based on the crystal structure of the FimH – Oligomannose-3 Complex. PloS One. 2008; (4): e2040.
  111. Rosen DA, Pinkner JS, Jones JM, Walker JN, Clegg S, and Hultgren SJ. Utilization of an IBC Pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae urinary tract infection and the effects of FimK on type 1 pilus expression. Infect. Immun. 2008: 76(7): 3337-3345.
  112. Rosen DA, Pinkner JS, Walker JN, Jones JM, Elam JS, and Hultgren SJ. Molecular variations in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli FimH affect function and pathogenesis in the urinary tract. Infect. Immun. 2008; 76(7): 3346-56.
  113. Berg V, Das P, Chorell E, Hedenstrom M, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ and Almqvist F. Carboxylic acid isosteres improve the activity of ring-fused 2-pyridones that inhibit pilus biogenesis in E.coli. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2008 Jun 15;18(12):3536-40.
  114. Rosen DA, Hung CS, Kline KA, and Hultgren SJ. A streptozocin-induced diabetic mouse model of urinary tract infection. Infect. Immun. 2008; 76(9):4290-4298.
  115. Pemberton N, Pinkner JS, Edvinsson S, Hultgren SJ and Almqvist F. Synthesis and evaluation of dihydroimidazolo and dihydrooxazolo ring-fused 2-pyridones—targeting pilus biogenesis in uropathogenic bacteria. Tetrahedron. 2008: (64):9368-9376.
  116. Verger D, Rose RJ, Paci E, Costakes E, Daviter T, Hultgren SJ, Remaut H, Ashcroft AE, Radford SE and Waksman G. Structural determinants of polymerization reactivity of the P pilus adaptor subunit PapF. Structure. 2008:16:1724-1731.
  117. Ingersoll MA, Kline KA, Nielsen HV, and Hultgen SJ. G-CSF mediated neutriphil recruitment during UPEC infection of the urinary tract is beneficial to the bacteria. Cell. Microbiol. 2008;12:2568-78.
  118. Nenninger AA, Robinson LS and Hultgren SJ. Localized and efficient curli nucleation requires the chaperone-like amyloid assembly protein CsgF. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009;106:900-5.
  119. Henderson JP, Crowley JR, Pinkner JS, Walker JN, Tsukayama P, Stamm WE, Hooton TM and Hultgren SJ. Quantitative metabolomics reveals an epigenetic blueprint for iron acquisition in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Accepted by PLOS Pathogens.
  120. Mysorekar IU, Isaacson-Schmid M, Walker JN, Mills JC and Hultgren SJ. Bone morphogentic protein 4 signaling regulates epithelial renewal in the urinary tract. In revision at Cell Host and Microbe.
  121. Kline KA, Ingersoll MA, Nielsen HV, Sakinc T, Gatermann S, Caparon MG, and Hultgren SJ. Staphylococcus saprophyticucs kidney tropism and macrophage-driven host response during urinary tract infection. Submitted.
  122. Cegelski L, Pinkner JS, Hammer ND, Hung CS, Chorell E, Aberg V, Garofalo CK, Walker JN, Seed PC, Almqvist F, Chapman MR and Hultgren SJ. Ring-fused 2-pyridones inhibit formation of amyloid-dependent bacterial biofilms. Submitted.
  123. Kline KA*, Kau AL*, Chen SL, Gill D, Lim A, Pinkner J, Beatty W, Murray BE, Nallapareddy SR, Murray BE, Beatty W, Henriques-Normark B, Caparon MG and Hultgren SJ. Mechanism for ExPortal protein retention in Enterococcus faecalis. *Authors contributed equally. Submitted.
  124. Chen SL, Hung CS, Pinkner JS, Walker JN, Cusumano CK, Bouckaert J, Gordon JI and Hultgren SJ. Positive selection identifies an in vivo role for FimH during urinary tract infection independent from mannose binding. In preparation.

Invited Publications:

  1. Duncan JL, Hultgren SJ, and Schaeffer AJ. Phase variation of type 1 pili (fimbriae) in urinary tract isolates of Escherichia coli. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium Zur Erforschung Der Infektionen Und Geschwulste Des Harntraktes 1985;
  2. A. Floth, P. Porpaczy, C. Schmidbauer, and P. Schramek, eds., Ludwig Boltzmann Institut, Gisteldruck, Vienna.Hultgren SJ, Schwan WR, Schaeffer AJ, and Duncan JL. Regulation of mannose-sensitive hemagglutination in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. In: Proceedings IV International Pyelonephritis Symposium 1987
  3. E. Kass and C. Svanborg-Eden, eds., University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.Schwan WR, Hultgren SJ, Amundsen SK, Duncan JL, and Schaeffer AJ. The contribution of Escherichia coli type 1 pili to ascending urinary tract colonization in mice. In: Proceedings IV International Pyelonephritis Symposium 1987
  4. E. Kass and C. Svanborg-Eden, eds., University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.Hultgren SJ, Lindberg F, Magnusson G, Tennent JM and Normark S. Isolation of the pre-assembled gala(1-4)gal-specific pilus-associated adhesin from the periplasm in uropathogenic Escherichia  coli. In: Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Adhesion 1988;
  5. K. Switalski, Hook, E. Beachey eds., Springer-Verlag, New York.Tennent JM, Hultgren S, Forsman K, Goransson M, Marklund BI, Uhlin BE, and Normark S. In: The Bacteria: Molecular Basis of Pathogenesis 1989
  6. B.H. Iglewski and V.L. Clark eds., Academic Press, Florida. Hultgren SJ, Abraham SN, and Normark S. Chaperone-assisted assembly and molecular architecture of adhesive pili.  Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 1991; 45: 383-415
  7. Hultgren SJ and Normark S.  Biogenesis of the bacterial pilus.  Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 1991; 1: 313-318.
  8. Stromberg N, Hultgren S, Russell DG, and Normark S. Microbial attachment and molecular mechanisms. Encyclopedia of Microbiology 1992; 3: 143-158.
  9. Jones CH, Jacob-Dubuisson F, Dodson K, Kuehn M, Slonim L, Striker R, and Hultgren SJ. Adhesin presentation in bacteria requires molecular chaperones and ushers. Infect. Immun. 1992; 60: 4445-4451.
  10. Jacob-Dubuisson F, Kuehn MJ, and Hultgren SJ.  A novel secretion apparatus for the assembly of adhesive bacterial pili.  Trends Microbiol. 1993; 1: 50-55.
  11. Hultgren SJ, Abraham S, Caparon M, Falk P, St. Geme JW III, and Normark S.  Pilus and nonpilus bacterial adhesins: assembly and function in cell recognition. Cell 1993; 73: 887-901.
  12. Hultgren SJ, Jacob-Dubuisson F, Jones CH, and Branden CI.  PapD and superfamily of periplasmic immunoglobulin-like pilus chaperones.  Adv. Protein Chem. 1993; 44: 99-123.
  13. Kuehn MJ, Haslam D, Normark S, and Hultgren SJ.  Structure, function, and biogenesis of Escherichia coli P pili. In: Fimbriae:  Adhesion, Genetics, Biogenesis, and Vaccines 1994
  14. P. Klemm ed.Kuehn MJ, Jacob-Dubuisson F, Dodson K, Slonim L, Striker R, and Hultgren SJ.  Genetic, biochemical and structural studies of biogenesis of adhesive pili in bacteria. Methods Enzymol. 1994; 236: 282-306.
  15. Slonim LN, Kuehn MJ, and Hultgren SJ.  Molecular escorts required to present adhesins to eukaryotic receptors.  In: Molecular Mechanisms in Bacterial Virulence 1994
  16. C. Kado, J. Crossa, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 
  17. Magnusson G, Hultgren SJ, and Kihlberg J. Specificity mapping of bacterial lectins by inhibition of hemagglutination using deoxy and deoxyfluoro analogs of receptor-active saccharides. Methods Enzymol. 1995; 253: 105-114.
  18. Jones CH, Dodson K and Hultgren SJ. Structure, function and assembly of adhesive pili. In: Urinary Tract Infection: Molecular Pathogenesis to Clinical Management 1996
  19. H. L. T. Mobley, J.W. Warren, eds., American Society for Microbiology.
  20. Hultgren SJ, Jones CH, and Normark S.  Bacterial adhesins and their assembly. In: Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. Cellular and Molecular Biology 1996
  21. F. Neidhardt et al., ed. Dodson KW, Jacob-Dubuisson F, Striker R, and Hultgren SJ: Assembly of adhesive virulence-associated pili in gram-negative bacteria. In: Escherichia coli Virulence Mechanisms 1997
  22. Max Sussman, ed.Lombardo MJ, Thanassi DG, and Hultgren SJ.  Escherichia coli PapD.  In: Guidebook to molecular chaperones and protein-folding catalysts 1997
  23. M.J. Gething, ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  24. Thanassi DG, Saulino ET, and Hultgren SJ. The chaperone/usher pathway: a major terminal branch of the general secretory pathway.  Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1998; 1: 223-231.
  25. Palaszynski S, Pinkner J, Leath S, Barren P, Auguste CG, Burlein J, Hultgren S, and Langermann S. Systemic immunization with conserved pilus-associated adhesins protects against mucosal infections. Dev. Biol. Stand. 1998; 92: 117-122.
  26. Hung DL and Hultgren SJ.  Pilus biogenesis via the chaperone/usher pathway: an integration of structure and function. J. Struct. Biol. 1998; 124: 201-220.
  27. Soto GE and Hultgren SJ.  Assembly of bacterial adhesins across the outer membrane via the chaperone-usher pathway. In: Transport of Molecules Across Microbial Membranes 1999
  28. JK Broome-Smith, S. Baumberg, C.J. Stirling and F.B. Ward, eds., Cambridge University Press. 124-137.
  29. Hultgren SJ, Hung DL, Jones CH, and Knight S. Structure and function of periplasmic PapD-like chaperones involved in assembly of bacterial P pili. In: Molecular Biology of Chaperones and Folding Catalysts: Regulation, cellular functions and mechanisms 1999
  30. B. Bukau, ed. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam. 661-683.
  31. Soto GE and Hultgren SJ. Bacterial adhesins: common themes and variations in architecture and assembly. J. Bacteriol. 1999; 181: 1059-1071.
  32. Thanassi DG and Hultgren SJ.  Assembly of complex organelles: pilus biogenesis in gram-negative bacteria as a model system. Methods 2000; 10: 111-126.
  33. Mulvey MA and Hultgren SJ. Microbial attachment and molecular mechanisms: bacterial adhesion. Encyclopedia of Microbiology 2000, 2: 42-52.
  34. Mulvey MA, Dodson KW, Soto GE, and Hultgren SJ.  Microbial attachment and molecular mechanisms:  fimbriae, pili. Encyclopedia of Microbiology 2000; 2: 361-379.
  35. Stathopoulos C, Hendrixson DR, Thanassi DG, Hultgren SJ, St. Geme JW III, and Curtiss R. Secretion of virulence determinants by the general secretory pathway in Gram-negative pathogens:  an evolving story. Microbes Infect. 2000, 2: 1061-1072.
  36. Mulvey MA, Hultgren SJ, and Langermann S. Development of an adhesin vaccine to prevent urinary tract infection. In: Development of Novel Antimicrobial Agents: Emerging Strategies 2000
  37. K. Lohner, ed. Horizon Scientific Press, Norfolk, England.
  38. Thanassi DG and Hultgren SJ. Multiple pathways allow protein secretion across the bacterial outer membrane. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 2000; 12: 420-430.
  39. Sauer FG, Knight SD, Waksman G, and Hultgren SJ.  PapD-like chaperones and pilus biogenesis.
  40. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 2000; 11: 27-34.
  41. Sauer FG, Mulvey MA, Schilling JD, Martinez JJ, and Hultgren SJ. Bacterial pili: molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2000; 3: 65-72.
  42. Sauer FG, Barnhart M, Choudhury D, Knight SD, Waksman G, and Hultgren SJ. Chaperone-assisted pilus assembly and bacterial attachment. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2000; 10: 548-556. 
  43. Mulvey MA and Hultgren SJ. Cell biology: bacterial spelunkers. Science 2000; 289: 732-733.
  44. Smith CL and Hultgren SJ. Bacteria thread the needle. Nature 2001; 414: 29-31.
  45. Hultgren SJ.  Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: interactions with bladder epithelium.  Urology 2001; 57(Suppl 1): 105-106. 
  46. Schilling JD, Mulvey MA, and Hultgren SJ. Dynamic interactions between host and pathogen during acute urinary tract infections. Urology 2001; 57(Suppl 1): 56-61.
  47. Schilling JD, Mulvey MA, and Hultgren SJ. Structure and function of Escherichia coli type 1 pili: new insight into the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections. J. Infect. Dis. 2001; 183(Suppl 1): S36-40.
  48. Hung CS, Hung DL, and Hultgren SJ. Adhesins Chapter in the Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine,  86 – 92,  2002 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
  49. Bann JG and Hultgren SJ. Adhesive pili of the chaperone-usher family in Escherichia coli. Virulence Mechanisms of a Versatile Pathogen 2002
  50. M. Donnenberg, ed. Academic Press, New York.Schilling JD and Hultgren SJ. Recent advances into the pathogenesis of recurrent urinary tract infection: the bladder as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2002; 19: 457-460.
  51. Darby C and Hultgren SJ. Innate defense evicts bacterial squatters. Nat. Immunol. 2002; 3: 602-604.
  52. Barnhart MM, Schilling JD, Backhed F, Richter-Dahlfors A, Normark S, and Hultgren SJ.  Host- pathogen interactions: structure and function of pili. Methods Microbiol. 2002; 31: 133-159.
  53. Schilling JD, Hultgren SJ, and Lorenz RG. Recent advances in the molecular basis of pathogen recognition and host responses in the urinary tract. Int. Rev. Immunol. 2002; 21: 291-304.
  54. Chapman MR, Robinson LS, and Hultgren SJ. Escherichia coli’s how-to guide for forming amyloid. ASM News 2003; 69: 121-126.
  55. Lee YM, Almqvist F, and Hultgren SJ. Targeting virulence for antimicrobial chemotherapy. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 2003; 3: 513-519.
  56. Justice SS, Dodson KW, Chapman MR, Barnhart MM, and Hultgren SJ. Assembly of adhesive organelles on Gram-negative bacteria in protein secretion pathways in bacteria.  In: Protein Secretion Pathways in Bacteria 2003; B. Oudega, ed., Kluwer Academic Press, New York.
  57. Bann JG and Hultgren SJ. Structural biology: anthrax hijacks host receptor. Nature 2004; 430: 843-844. 
  58. Anderson GG, Dodson KW, Hooton TM, Hultgren SJ. Intracellular bacterial communities of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urinary tract pathogenesis. Trends Microbiol. 2004; 12: 424-430.
  59. Anderson GG, Martin SM, and Hultgren SJ. Host subversion by formation of intracellular bacterial communities in the urinary tract. Microbes Infect. 2004; 6: 1094-1101. 
  60. Sauer FG, Remaut H, Hultgren SJ, and Waksman G.  Fiber assembly by the chaperone-usher pathway.  Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2004; 1694: 259-267. Kau AL, Hunstad DA, and Hultgren SJ.  Interaction of uropathogenic Escherichia coli with host uroepithelium.  Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2005; 8: 54-59.Seed PC and Hultgren SJ.  Blueprinting the regulatory response of Escherichia coli to the urinary tract.  Trends Microbiol. 2005; 13: 246-248.Bann JG, Cegelski L and Hultgren SJ.  LRP6 holds the key for the entry of anthrax toxin. Cell 2006; 124: 1119-21.
  61. Kanai A, de Groat W, Birder L, Chai T, Hultgren S, Fowler C and Fry C.  Symposium report on urothelial dysfunction: pathophysiology and novel therapies. J. Urol. 2006; 5: 1624-9.
  62. Wright KJ and Hultgren SJ. Sticky fibers and uropathogenesis: Bacterial adhesions in the urinary tract. Future Microbiol. 2006; 1: 75-87.
  63. Anderson GG, Lee YM, Smith C and Hultgren SJ. Mechanisms of bacterial adhesion and consequences of attachment. In: Molecular Paradigms of Infectious Diseases 2006; C. Nickerson and E. Schurr, eds. Springer, New York.
  64. Cegelski L, Marshall G, Eldridge G and Hultgren SJ. The biology and future prospects of anti-virulence therapies. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2008; 1:17-27.
  65. Justice SS, Hunstad DA, Cegelski L and Hultgren SJ. Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2008;6: 17-27.
  66. Justice SS, Hunstad DA, Cegelski L and Hultgren SJ. Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2008;6; 162-8.
  67. Elam J and Hultgren SJ. Infectious disease and women’s health. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2008;(4):254.Cegelski L, Smith CL and Hultgren SJ.  Microbial Adhesion. In: Encyclopedia of Microbiology 2008; Invited contribution.  Accepted.


  1. Editor of “Structural Biology of Bacterial Pathogenesis.” ASM Press, 2005. Editors: Waksman G, Caparon M, and Hultgren SJ.